Sunday, 9 November 2014

The Psychology of Terrorism

War, war, war!

That's been on the news for sometime, hasn't it? Today, the world is appalled by the actions of a terrorist organization known as ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria). This eXtremist group have made themselves known by their violent tactics, torture, seXual violence, slavery etc etc etc. They were so violent that Al Qaeda rejected them completely (Define Irony). What's interesting about IS is that they're active on social media. No really, they actually recruit through social media via advertising and a spoonful of bullshit propaganda. IS, unlike other terrorist groups, is made up of A LOT of 'Westerners'. In fact, it is estimated around one in four IS militants have a Western passport. That caught my interest because I wanted to write about what would cause 

a British or American Muslim to leave his/her family and fight and kill for such a violent ideology a long way from their birth home.

Shall we begin?
To start with, what is ISIS? I already mentioned what ISIS stands for. But what really is ISIS? To a lot of people, every terrorist group is the same - using eXtreme measures to achieve their goals which is usually political or religious in nature. However, no two terrorist groups are the same. One group's terrorist is another man's hero. The Lebanese Militia known as Hezballa are considered terrorists outside Lebanon (And in Lebanon by certain sects). But if you want to compare, Hezballa has been protecting Lebanon and fighting off members of Al-Nusra and ISIS in Syria protecting the Lebanese people and providing major back up to the Lebanese Army at the Arsal border.

ISIS started with the United States (Go figure) training militant rebels and arming them in order to take down Bashar l Assad. The plan backfired when those militants went AWOL and declared a Caliphate under Abu Bakr l Baghdadi. Since then, they have committed atrocities I won't even bother mentioning here. I've kept up with multiple British citizens who have left Great Britain in order to go and fight ISIS.

The Theories

The Need to Belong

A  2006 survey and interview with British Muslims (cited by Andrew Silke 2008) uncovered an important finding - people who felt their primary identity was Muslim, rather than British, held more sympathetic views towards the concept of jihad and martyrdom. Indeed, according to Randy Borum (2014) writing in Behavioural Sciences and the Law, a key psychological vulnerability of those drawn to eXtremism is their need to feel they belong. "In radical movements and eXtremist groups, many prospective terrorists find not only a sense of meaning but also a sense of belonging, connectedness and affiliation."

When I got to England, I noticed that many of the Muslims there are more 'religious' in a sense. I see many of them growing beards and dressing up in their Islamic robes. There's nothing wrong in that, of course but I was curious. Why was I curious? Because I've been to Sunni Islamic areas of both Lebanon, UAE and Syria and seeing such a thing is quite rare. In fact, we only see such people who take a strong conservative stance. So why do they identify themselves as Muslims and not British? It's simple - the need to belong. We consciously (And unconsciously) identify with people who are the same as us. It's in man's nature because the ego is always finding ways to defend itself. Besides identifying with a religious sect, people identify with a number of things. The Chelsea football fans stick together, the Goths stick together, the Blacks stick together, the Latinos with their language stick together, etc Music, sports, ideologies, etc. I could go on for hours but you get the point. What makes the UK better than the US is the fact it is eXecuted properly. The U.S almost promotes racism. A lot of Brits may argue against me but I can personally tell you as someone who has been all over, Britain is better off than most. Going back to British Muslims who identify as Muslims and not British. There's a number of reasons. I personally believe the Diaspora Effect. A lot of Muslims, say with a Pakistan origins, have strong desires to 'go back home'. Many left Pakistan in order to have a better life. Some succeeded, some didn't. The parents may talk to their kids about their memories which, for the most part, is during their time in Pakistan. This projection promotes the need to identify with their culture such as food, music, language, belief etc.

Who becomes an eXtremist? 

 In the UK, contrary to popular belief, many of those who left to join ISIS came from Middle Class and High Class families. They were also well educated. Most of them were in their late teens and early twenties. I could go all Psychoanalytical and tell you this is the stage where people hit an 'Identity Crisis' which is why our school or early college days were days we regret the most. We look back at those pictures and see what 'scene' we were part of. We just needed to identify or we thought we identified with this group (Some people are still fiXated at this stage). It's basically the stage where we eXperiment. You know, clubbing every night, doing drugs, adrenaline fueled speeding, etc. It's the same with the common Western Jihadist, just how you could be peer pressured to try drugs, you could be peer pressured to become a terrorist. I'll talk about this momentarily but let me tackle the question in your head saying I'm wasting my time writing this because these people are mentally ill.

Are They Psychologically Ill? 

Contrary to popular belief, a study by Borum (2014) showed that "eXtremists" are not psychologically abnormal. Like I said, many of these Brits and other Europeans come from well educated families. However, I have to disagree slightly. The line between normal and abnormal is way too thin, at least in my books. An eXtremist doesn't have to be abnormal to the point labelled psychotic but that doesn't mean he/she isn't neurotic. Just like how a teenager with their identity crisis can't fit in or can't find the light in the world for a number of reasons, so does the eXtremist. Some of them might pull out of this stage and some might fiXate which is why most Personality Disorders aren't diagnosed before the age of 18. 

The Risky Shift  

 Social Psychology has a theory known as the Risky Shift (Or group polarlisation). You'd be surprised to know (Or not) that many people are introduced to radical theories by a close knit of friends. Remember when I mentioned peer pressure up there? It's basically the same thing. Even the slightest belief of radicalism can be lit up when the entire group opens up. In fact, people who are most vulnerable are the ones who have nothing to lose or simply the ones who have lost everything (Both different and alike in numerous ways) which is why they compensate by numbing the pain through certain 'destructive' behaviors like drug use. That doesn't mean everyone who has tried drugs is compensating for something, please try and understand the psychological profile I'm detailing here. Anyways, back to our eXtremist group meeting, the phenomenon known as Risky Shift occurs - it is best defined as the tendency for groups to arrive at more eXtreme positions than any individual would have come up on his own. When the ego is in danger, seeking meaning, desperate, etc, it would project its own shadow into the world. When in a group, a collective shadow has been created which is just a bag of everyone's different (Or not so different) nightmares all bottled up. In History, the Nazi regime is a good eXample. In Literature, the Lord of the Flies comes to mind when those innocent marooned children became Satan's spawns and committed atrocious acts. It's the same with eXtremists, why stop at one eXtreme point? I would personally put Risky Shift as the Fuel for eXtreminism. 

Marginalisation and Perceived Injustice

Many would-be violent extremists bear grievances, sometimes a sense of humiliation (either personally or on behalf of their in-group) and a desire for revenge. At the same time, they feel that their needs and interests are not recognised by mainstream authorities. It's notable that in the UK and other Western countries, the Muslim population are massively under-represented in national parliaments. A 2009 paper "Patterns of Thinking in Militant EXtremism" analysed the mindset of many eXtremist groups around the world (based on internet and printed material), including the IRA and the Muslim Brotherhood, and two key beliefs were the illegitimacy of the established authorities and that change can only be achieved through eXtreme and unconventional means.That sounds rather unfair but this is the part where any minority group that feels it has been under-represented will start to show muscle. We've seen Sunni sects riot in England with their radical beliefs. When I asked one of the protestors why doesn't he go to a country where Sharia law is implemented, he took offense - then it all made sense. Amazing what anger reveals about a person's psychological mind-frame. When he thought he could show muscle, I told him it's unfair how Sunni minority groups want to implement Sharia law in liberal countries but in countries where Sharia law is the main law, any other minority group would be wiped out -- through radical means.

Dehumanisation of Enemies

As I mentioned, the ego will always protect itself and go on with society's perceived standards. What makes eXtremists dangerous is the fact that they have completely dehumanised their enemies. We all saw how Jihadi John decapitated that poor reporter's head as if he was having a stroll at Hyde Park. If you're not with me, you're against me. Interesting trivia is that this doesn't only apply to eXtremists. Brain response shows we dehumanise people we can't associate with such as street beggars and drugs addicts. Unconsciously, we may not be aware of the words we use such as, 'Pff animals, they should all be killed'. We've dehumanised our enemies but they've also done the same to us. 

EXistential Influences

For many people, eXtremist religious movements offer eXistential comfort. EXtremists and many so-called fundamentalists in all religions, use one of the most basic and often most destructive forms of defense," writes Gibbs (2005) "they repress the anXiety of nonbeing, splitting the self and filling the void with self-protective belief systems and structures ..." Also relevant here is "Terror Management Theory" - this states that we respond to reminders of our mortality by entrenching our beliefs and deepening our cultural allegiances. A 2006 study found that Muslim Iranian students reminded of their own mortality subsequently eXpressed more support for their peers who believed in the legitimacy of suicide attacks against the US. So going back to the point where all humans try and find meaning to their lives, they find comfort in something that fulfills them - usually religion or any ideology they can identify with. Freud talked about the Ego and Death Instinct so that's a good read elucidating this matter in more psychoanalytical detail. The quest for personal significance constitutes a major motivational force that may push individuals toward violent eXtremism," write Arie W. Kruglanski et al in a 2014 paper. Silke (2008) similarly points out that in many communities, "joining a terrorist group increases the standing of a teenager or youth considerably." It's also important to recognise the lure of danger and eXcitement, especially to young disenfranchised men. Silke quotes a former IRA member reminiscing about his time as a terrorist: "I lived each day in a heightened state of alertness. Everything I did, however trivial, could seem meaningful."

Violent Scriptures 

Every religion has a passage that comes off as violent, which is part of human nature. It was hypothesized that such scriptures promote violent behavior and aggression. Luckily, a 2007 study by Bushman put this to test and results showed that students eXposed to violent scriptures did eXhibit more aggression, especially if they were religious believers. It's similar with theories of how growing up to violent video games and movies could cause one to develop violent traits we see in Conduct Disorder and eventually Anti-Social Personality Disorder. However, religion is more internalised, and scriptures that portray violence have a stronger effect than video games. 

In conclusion, I've done my best to list some of the theories that eXplain what goes through the mind of a terrorist. As always, I'll be happy to receive your private questions. 

Stay safe, stay smart.

Thursday, 22 May 2014

The Devil Gene: Part II 'Sociopathy'

"I'm not a Psychopath, I'm a High Functioning Sociopath! Do you research." - Sherlock Holmes 

The debate has been going on forever and countless psychologists and psychiatrists still haven't reached a verdict whether there is a difference between Sociopathy and Psychopathy or if they are the same thing after all. If you've read the first chapter of this series, you are already acquainted with my position to where I stand on this topic.

Recall that Anti-Social Personality Disorder (And tendencies) make up a small amount of our society (Prevalence 2 to 5%)

So, what's a Sociopath? Most of what you'd read when you google Sociopath would be 'Psychopath (Or Sociopath) is so - so - so. However, with the meticulous research on the topic, new results are showing a difference in how we label such personalities. The main differences are due to neurological deficits but I'll eXplain as much as I can - the personality differences.

Remember when I mentioned there are different types of Anti Social Traits? The Narcissistic Type, The Malicious Type, etc.  Each time is eXtremely important to understanding a sociopath which I'll come to in a minute. Also, my personal opinion (It wouldn't be a blog if it wasn't personal opinion) is that IQ (E-IQ, IQ, etc) play a big role in personality formation. Like I mentioned previously, if two men - one of them a shop lifter and the other one a corporate manager are both diagnosed ASPDs, why is there a difference? It all falls down to Intelligence. The shop lifter is most likely to be ASPD of the Malicious type using violence to get what he/she wants whereas the corporate manager could be charming and manipulative, using these tactics to climb the ladder.

So now you make ask, a psychopath can also have those traits. Very true. So what differentiates them?


A Sociopath, like it or not, does possess a form of empathy. No matter how small, empathy is empathy. The area of the brain which is the major control center for emotions, especially fear - happens to be the Amygdala. Numerous studies have shown that abnormalities in the amygdala lead patients to lose all forms of fear. They also happened to be less empathetic. In fact, they weren't able to comprehend fear even when presented with a snake face to face. They could understand different pictures of people's emotions but not fear. Not to get into so much detail but it is imperative I eXplain these brain functions.

 As you know or may not know, no single part of the brain is responsible for one activity. Surely some areas of the brain do the majority of the work but the brain works as a unified system. The Prefrontal CorteX located in the frontal lobe is what gives us humans the ability to plan, solve and eXecute primary functions. The amygdala works in pair with this area of the brain. Messages are both received and relayed to one another. For eXample, if you're scared of a lion, you perceive this lion through the use of your occipital lobe which sends neural messages to your amygdala and prefrontal corteX basically telling you that is a threat and the fight or flight system will be activated through the use of neurotransmitters. So, people who have a 'shrunken' or 'abnormal' amygdala may perceive it differently. Now not everyone is afraid of lions, crocodiles, snakes etc. That is true considering some tribes in Africa would Crocodiles as 'Food' while a Teenage girl from California would see Crocodiles as hell. Does that mean tribesmen in Africa all have abnormal amgydalas? Certainly NOT. It all falls into conditioning since we're all taught to fear this and avoid that when growing up. There are some evolutionary factors that were stuck with us and passed down as fear elements. Sour foods taste nasty because poisons in the wild tended to have a 'sour' like taste so we naturally despise them. That's your brain looking out for you. Nice one, brain. Anyways, not to digress, a sociopath's brain works similar to ours. However, with a slight few differences. Since they have a shrunken amgydala, they perceive and make choices differently than the relative population. 

Here's a question:

You're an observer on the hill top and a train is racing down the tracks and if left alone, would kill a group of people, say five people but you have the choice of pulling a switch that would alter the train's direction and kill one person instead. What would you do here?

Here's another one with an added cherry on top:

Same scenario with a train speeding down the tracks en route to kill five people (Christ, what kind of train is this?) but instead of a switch, there's an obese man standing above the train tracks. If you push this innocent bystander, his weight will somehow miraculously stop the train en route to kill these five people.This one happens to be more complicated because you are actually using your physical body to push this person to his death.

As I've given this eXample before, my answer in class raised concerns. Yes, I am indeed a terrible person.

So a non fictional character of a sociopath? Can you name any? If you're thinking on the lines of Jack the Ripper or Ted Bundy or any other serial killer - I'd disagree. I'm not saying a sociopath wouldn't commit murder; anyone is capable of committing murder. Threaten to kill a baby and the mother would put a bullet through your head if you give her a gun. She'd put more than one bullet if I had to bet on it. Remember the Milgram eXperiment? If not, research it.

"Madness, you see, is like gravity - all you need is a little push" - The Joker 'The Dark Knight' 

My favorite non fictional characters of Sociopaths would be Niccolo Machiavelli and Cesare Borgia. If you have read Machiavelli's 'The Prince'; he's basically labelling the ideal sociopath.

Fictional characters? Hannibal Lecter is a Psychopath while Will Graham is a Sociopath.

More fictional characters? Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. If I had to do a case study on Sherly, it would be imperative to mention his high intellect. That doesn't mean average intelligence can't 'deduce' things but Sherlock has higher cognitive functions (memory, attention, etc) indicating higher intelligence since they're both positively correlated. The fact he labelled himself 'High Functioning Sociopath' isn't found in any Psychological literature but it does make sense to an eXtent. That is to say, Sherlock is conscious of his nature. Though he stops bad guys and such, he doesn't do it because he's Jesus Christ; he does it to fuel his ego, to be right, to know and leave no stone unturned. Yet Sherlock does have one friend - Dr. Watson.

As for Dr. Watson, recall in my last blog I did mention that Doctors have similar neurological make up to 'psychopaths' because they're able to disect and cut through you like nothing - only difference is that the action is sublimated. Remember Dr. Watson was suffering from somatoform disorders after returning from skirmish but soon regained his 'health' upon meeting Sherlock because Watson enjoys the thrill and danger - a common trait for sociopaths and psychopaths. They love the rush. Psychopaths love it too - that's why they tend to taunt police officers after every crime.

Statistics show that 1 in 20 people happen to be 'Sociopaths' which means that anyone could, if pushed, go over the edge. Remember, there's absolutely nothing wrong with sociopaths, for what they are biologically, it all falls down to the environment determining who they are.

There you have it, a brief piece on Sociopathic Literature. My apologies for not posting any brain images - I wanted this piece to be purely literature since there are no key researches as of yet. Maybe in future, I'll conduct an eXperiment (Hopefully). As for Psychopathy, I'll be writing in great detail followed with pictures of brain scans and case studies of serial killers. The topic on Psychopaths would make the Anti-Social Personality Disorder and Sociopathy topics easier to comprehend because, as mentioned above, it may be difficult to comprehend at first. Please take note that even psychologists have a hard time differentiating the differences.

[If you have any questions, private message me on Facebook 'Joey 'Kaiser' Elie Dib' or email me at]

Friday, 31 January 2014

The Devil Gene: Part I 'Anti-Social Personality Disorder'

Good day everyone,

Welcome to the first chapter of The Devil Gene series. The first chapter is Anti Social Personality Disorder. The second chapter is on Sociopathy. The third chapter will be on Psychopathy. And hopefully, the final chapter will be an integrated collection of all three, elucidating their differences and similarities. I wanted to write a chapter of all three once and for all but the literature is so vast, it's best if I divided each into small sections to make it easier for you (and myself).


When someone says, 'He's a Psychopath!' What comes into mind? The normal person would think about serial killers and Batman's Joker. However, this isn't the case, at least not entirely. What about Sociopathy? 'Hold up, wait - I thought they were the same thing?' OR 'Oh yeah I've heard about sociopathy but what's the difference?' Many psychologists argue that Sociopathy and Psychopathy are the same thing but the literature tends to change the terms. At one point, I would have agreed with this but with some new research studies, I'm standing on the side where there's a difference between both and hopefully for my Doctorate thesis, I could thoroughly study it. What about Anti-Social Personality Disorder? What comes to mind?

Anti Social? As in I don't like socializing?
Does this mean I'm an introvert?
Is there such a thing as a personality disorder?

According to the DSM-IV-TR (2000) Anti-Social Personality Disorder is one of the many disorders found in the AXIS II spectrum. In order to understand this spectrum, I have to list the clusters and disorders.

Cluster A (odd disorders)

Cluster B (dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders)

Cluster C (anxious or fearful disorders)

I won't get into all of them but notice how each cluster categorizes them into a set of attributes. For eXample, Cluster A is classified into 'Odd Disorders' which means people with this personality disorder are the ones you go 'Huh? What's up with this dude? Weirdo..'  Let us look at a few from Cluster A before moving to Anti Social which is in Cluster B.

Schizoid - This has nothing to do with Schizophrenia (at least in this blog) - please remember this is a personality disorder NOT a mental or medical disorder. I'm not saying it isn't possible to find someone with Schizophrenia with a Schizoid or Schizotypal personality. It's like cancer - you can be a psychopath or a 'normal' person with a 'normal' personality and you're still at risk in getting cancer. So what about a person with Schizoid personality?

The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists schizoid personality disorder as Schizoid personality disorder.
It is characterized by at least four of the following criteria:
  1. Emotional coldness, detachment or reduced affect.
  2. Limited capacity to express either positive or negative emotions towards others.
  3. Consistent preference for solitary activities.
  4. Very few, if any, close friends or relationships, and a lack of desire for such.
  5. Indifference to either praise or criticism.
  6. Little interest in having sexual experiences with another person (taking into account age).
  7. Taking pleasure in few, if any, activities.
  8. Indifference to social norms and conventions.
  9. Preoccupation with fantasy and introspection.

As you can see, it takes 4 or more of these traits to be classified as a Schizoid  Personality. Now you may be saying, 'Ouf I know someone like that'. Well, chances are rare. A schizoid is someone like a hermit, living alone in the cold mountains all his life. In the work place, schizoids are usually librarians who sit all day alone in a quiet space. You can have the first four traits listed above 1 to 4 (or 5) and the last 6-9 traits. No matter, you'll be classified as a Schizoid Personality.

If you got that, we can now talk about Anti Social Personality Disorder. As you can see, it's in the Cluster B category with the dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders. I've already briefly spoken about Histrionic Personality Disorder in the past.

They say ASPD makes up 2% generally but I personally believe it's way more than that. At least 5% because it's harder to be detected in people with higher intelligence. I shall write more on this momentarily. 

Here are the 'symptoms' according both to the DSM IV and ICD 10 manual for ASPD

The APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), defines antisocial personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster B):
A) There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three or more of the following::
  1. failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest;
  2. deception, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure;
  3. impulsivity or failure to plan ahead;
  4. irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults;
  5. reckless disregard for safety of self or others;
  6. consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations;
  7. lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another;
B) The individual is at least age 18 years.
C) There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years.
D) The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode.
In the DSM-5, the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder is kept, but it is no longer on another axis as the other mental disorders.


The WHO's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth edition (ICD-10), has a diagnosis called dissocial personality disorder
It is characterized by at least 3 of the following:
  1. Callous unconcern for the feelings of others;
  2. Gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social norms, rules, and obligations;
  3. Incapacity to maintain enduring relationships, though having no difficulty in establishing them;
  4. Very low tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, including violence;
  5. Incapacity to experience guilt or to profit from experience, particularly punishment;
  6. Marked readiness to blame others or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior that has brought the person into conflict with society.
Looking at the DSM-IV-TR criteria, it says three or more of the following should be met in order to be classified with the disorder. I'm going to take 3 from the 7 listed up there that I find least destructive.

2 - Deception - repeated lying - manipulating others for profit.
3- Impulsivity - failure to plan ahead
5- Reckless regard for safety of others and oneself.

When you read those 3 in one person, does a serial killer come to mind? To me, it doesn't. What I see here is a person in a white suit in a high corporation company. Think about it, the kid of some rich millionaire enjoying the party life:

He'd definitely deceive women to get into her pants.
Impulsive behavior - what does he care? He's got everything he needs. No regard or value whatsoever.
Fast driving, substance abuse, all for into part of the entertainment.

Now let me pick 1, 4 and 7.

1 - Rebellious attacks - can't seem to follow the law. Multiple acts that lead to arrest.
4-Irrability and aggressiveness - easily agitated - gets into physical fights
7-Lack of remorse - doesn't care who is hurt in the process.

What springs to mind? I see those thugs on the streets who hold up liquor stores. They just can't seem to function in society, they make up a large number of prison inmates too.

So as you can see, between those two eXamples. They're very similar and very different too. Imagine putting the rich anti social kid in a room with the thug?  That's what makes it unique - no two classifications are the same. Now imagine you have someone with 7/7 of those classified attributes. The results depends and I personally believe and I'll be sure to do a study on it in future is that it falls into 'Intelligence'. When you have a high degree of emotional and social intelligence, you tend to 'mask' your emotions better. Take two eXamples again - this time fully classified ASPD.

The first one has low emotional and social ASPD. I would deduce that this person may get away with things because as long as they eXhibit these traits, they'll still be able to retain some of their charm and manipulative techniques but not for long. If you can't hide your emotions, you've shown a breaking point. Therefore someone smarter than you will be able detect the game you're playing. If you 'tick' on every detail with an aggressive answer, you'll wind up in jail hence the large amount of inmates are classified ASPD but come from a background of poor education and supervision. These people are violent and dangerous and they're the type to take a blunt object and attack you with it, as long as it gets the job done.

For the second eXample with ASPD but this time with high emotional and social intelligence, you're not eXactly looking at some super villain although it is possible but I can't discuss this without going into psychopathy and sociopathy so I'll do my best to elucidate what I can. I would personally go with the white suit corporate leaders. With that much intelligence, it's quite simple to deceive others. They tend to go into positions which empowers them. What comes to mind is the main character from American Psycho or the Wolf of Wall Street. Please take note that doesn't mean you won't find them in other areas. You'll find most of them in the workforce that deals with people, even psychologists, teachers, politicians, doctors, lawyers etc Why is it that 4% of the priesthood are involved in crimes? Does that mean all Priests are evil? Absolutely not. They just outsmarted you by joining a 'workforce' whereby nobody would suspect this nice man of God who serves with honest people would ever do such a thing. Does this mean all business corporate leaders are evil? Absolutely not. Please take into account that ASPD is seen in 1-5% in the general population

Theodore Millon has listed subtypes within the disorder. Please take a look. 
I once told my professor that the disorders in Cluster B are not as concrete as the others. What I was trying to say is that you can finds bits of each symptom in Cluster B personalities in one another. You'd find borderline, histrionic and narcissistic personality disorder traits in Anti Social (and vice versa) 

The graph above works as a more advanced eXample than what I wrote above so I hope you can understand or at least get an idea of what I'm trying to convey. I could briefly describe each one for you but it would be prudent if you use your imagination. I'm sure we all know someone or seen a piece of art and literature that has a character with such traits.

Interestingly enough, ASPD shares multiple comorbid disorders


The following conditions commonly coexist with ASPD:
 We've already stated Borderline, Histrionic and Narcissistic Personality disorder above. Ignore Sadistic Personality Disorder for now. The rest of them are not personality disorders but mental disorders that are usually found in this personality disorder, such as substance abuse (Tends to do drugs) and ADHD in which the precise science is fully yet to be known the relationship between ASPD and having ADHD disorder.

For now I won't go into the Neurological and Biological aspect of the disorder. I would love to talk about the brain and what neurotransmitters are involved that causes the person to have such a make up but I will leave that for the coming chapters. Please feel free to message me any questions regarding the disorder and take note my neXt blog post would continue with Sociopathy.